Crosswort is one of those wildflowers that seems insignificant at first, but once you spot it, it seems to be growing profusely everywhere. There is a good show at the moment along the grass verges, but as the grass and larger plant grow rapidly they obscure it.
Crosswort is a low growing perennial, that forms rhizomes, underground stems from which the shoots sprout around 4-8 inches high in Spring. The stems are square and unbranched, bearing triangular leaves, both stems and leaves are covered in tiny hairs.
The leaves are arranged in groups of four in a cross-shape, which can be easily seen when viewed from above. This gives rise to the name. It is also known as smooth bedstraw, maywort and maiden’s hair.
The tiny four-petalled yellow flowers also follow a cross shape and smell faintly of honey. They are arranged in clusters around the stem above each group of leaves.
Crosswort isn’t used as a modern culinary or medicinal herb but in the past it was used to treat dropsy, rheumatism and rupture. It was also used to promote would healing and cure headaches. A red dye was extracted from the roots.
Crosswort is found throughout Europe and Asia. In the UK it is less common in Northern Scotland and the far west. It thrives on chalky soils in grassland and roadside verges.